Milk Production

Clean milk production

  • Milking is the key operation on a dairy farm; on it depends the income derived.
  • Maintenance of clean condition in the milking barn results both in better udder health and production of milk that remains wholesome for longer time.
  • Therefore the milk producers should strictly follow the following guidelines for clean milk production.

Cleanliness of animal sheds

  • The floor should be impervious, non-slippery and reveled.
  • The milking barn should be thoroughly washed and sobbed after each milking so that the barn will be clean and dry, before the subsequent milking is commenced

Cleanliness of cows

  • The health condition of cows should be regularly examined. Milking should be carried out first to healthy cows followed by diseased ones.
  • The hind quarters and thighs of cows should be brushed and washed if lot of filth is accumulating on them.
  • Just before milking the udder should be wiped with a cloth dipped and squeezed in some weak antiseptic solution.

Cleanliness of milkers and milking pails

  • The milkers should wear clean dress and cover their heads with suitable caps, last loose hairs may fall in milk
  • Milkers nails should be well trimmed and their hands clean and disinfected between each milking by washing in antiseptic solution.
  • Milkers obviously ill and haring filthy habits like spitting, blowing nose etc. should not be used.
  • After each milking the milking pails should first be washed with warm water, scrubbed well using suitable dairy sanitizer and then rinsed well with clean cold water.

  • A milk strainer should invariably be used poured into the milking can.
  • The milk must be squeezed and not dragged out of teats.
  • The first few strips of milk from each teat should be let on to a strip-cup to see clues in milk for possible incidence of mastitis.


Milk quality testing

  • Milk forms an important constituent of diet. Regarding quality of milkcertain standards have been set up in order to pass it for human consimption.
  • According to it, cow milk should have 3.5% fat, 8.5% SNF whereas buffalo milk should contain 5% fat and 9% SNF.
  • In order to test the quality of milk the following tests are being conducted in the milk collection centers

Tests for colour, taste and odour


  • The colour of milk get changed due to adulteration.
  • Milk with abnormal colour is not fit for human consumption.


  • Milk should have normal taste. Milk with bitter or
  • sour taste are generally not considered to be fit for human consumption.


  • Milk should have normal odour.

Testing of fat content in milk

  • Estimation of fat content is being done during collection of milk from the producers.
  • Normally Gurber’s method is being followed which is considered to be the traditional method. But recently Electronic milk tester is being used in many parts of the country.
  • SNF can be defined as the remaining constituents of milk other than fat. They are tested by using lactometer.
  • Fixation of price to milk is being done by taking into consideration both fat and SNF content of milk.

Reasons for fluctuations of fat & SNF content in milk

Breed variation

  • Inversely related to the age of the animal
  • Fat content of milk decreases when the animal is frightened or if it is suffering from any disease
  • Fat content increases from 15 days after calving till 9 months.
  • Fat content increases following slight exercise.

To get the remunerative price for the producers

  • Adulteration of milk with water should never be done
  • Never supply milk to the societies, which follow malpractices regarding measurement.
  • Supply milk to the societies, which pay according to the fat content of milk.


Economics of milk production

  • The profitability of a dairy enterprise depends on the relationship between the cost of milk production and sale price of milk.
  • However the producer has no control over the sale price of milk but he has steady control on cost of milk production.

Guidelines to reduce the cost of milk production

  • Cultivation of green fodder in ones own land will reduce the cost of milk production to a great extent.
  • Utilization of family labour for various dairy operations.
  • By coinciding the green fodder availability with calvings to occur during that particular period.
  • Rearing of cows which are in IV or V lactation.
  • By saving the money involved in purchase of green fodder, concentrates and medicines.
  • By proper maintenance of records in the farm.


Cost of animal yielding 7-8lts of milk per day
Rs. 10,000
Lactation length 300 days
Cost of concentrate per kg Rs. 4.50
Cost of green fodder per kg Rs. 0.50
Cost of dry fodder per kg Rs. 0.70
Cost of milk per litre Rs. 10.00

  • The above rates will vary from time to time.

Fixed Cost:

Cost of graded Murrah buffalo yielding 6-7 lt/day
Cost of buffalo shed @4.0 m2 / buffalo


Composition of different types of milk

What does milk contains

  • Milk mainly contains fat and solids (SNF). This solid contains Carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals etc. Milk is very essential food item, which is highly nutritious. The fat and SNF content types of milk as per food adulteration control act are given in the table of different below.

Name of the milk
Minimum fat content( %)
Mimimum SNF (%)
Buffalo milk
Cow milk
Mixed milk
Full cream milk
Tonned milk
Double tonned milk
Stemmed milk

Why do people adeltrate milk

  • Milk contains natural high quality nutrients. So people try to adulterate these nutrients with other food items of low quality to make more money by selling the milk.


  • Dalda and vegetable oil is added to increase fat content
  • Sugar, maida flour, urea, salt etc are added to increase SNF
  • Water is added to milk to increase quantity.
  • Removing the fat from milk.

Effect of adeltration

  • We will not get the quality milk for quality we are paying.
  • We will not get required nutrition from milk.
  • Through contamination we may spoil our health.

Why the milk spoils

  • Milk quality deteriorates very fast because the microorganisms enter the milk if milk is handles in un hygienic condition.
  • These microorganisms utilize the nutrients for their growth thus spoiling the milk quality.
  • The milk quality starts detoriating from the time it is milked from the animal.

How to maintain milk quality

  • The farmer should produce milk in hygienic conditions.
  • Clean utensils should be used for milking.
  • The milk should be chilled to below 5 C as early as possible.
  • Such chilled milk should be sending for processing.
  • Hear the milk should be pasteurized and kept in cold condition.
  • Such milk should be packed and send to the consumer
  • By taking the above steps the milk will be infection free, clean and wholesome.
  • From villages milk has to be transported long distances to reach cities, which involves lot of expenses and efforts. They will not used clean utensils, they will not handle in hygienic conditions. So the milk tends to spoil early.

How people prevent spoilage of milk

  • They mix water with milk.
  • To prevent growth of the micros, which entered due to un hygienic practices, they add chemicals like hydrogen peroxide.
  • To avoid milk spoilage they add some alkalis like baking soda, washing soda, caustic soda etc.
  • By consuming the above milk with high bacterial load we may get diseases like cholera, typhoid, loose motions etc. The chemicals, which are added to milk also, have some deleterious effect on health like intestinal ulcers, kidney stones, allergy, cancer etc.