Important breeds of cattle

Important breeds of cattle

  • The domestication of cattle appears to have taken place before 4000 BC. In India there are 26 well defined breeds of cattle.
  • They are classified into 3 different categories based upon their utility.

Milch breeds




  • Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar

Draught breeds

  • Amrit Mahal, Nagori, Malvi, Hallikar, Khillari, Kangayam, Krishna Valley

Dual purpose breeds

  • Ongole, Nirmari, Hariana, Deoni, Kankrej, Dangi

    1.  Among buffaloes the important breeds include Murrah, Nili - Ravi, Surti, Jaffara badi, Mehsana and      Nagpuri. In Andhra Pradesh a new breed known as Godavari was evolved through grading up of local      buffaloes with Murrah over generations.
    2.  India shares 50% of the total buffalo population of the world.
    3.  The contribution of buffalo milk towards the total milk production in our country is nearly 60% eventhough       the buffalo population is 1/3rd the cattle population.

Important breed of cattle in India figures

    1. Sahiwal
    2. Gir
    3. Kangayam
    4. Red Sindhi
    5. Tharparkar
    6. Hallikar
    7. Kankrej
    8. Amrit Mahal
    9. Ongole

  • Breeds of cattle in Andhra Pradesh and their development:
  • In Andhra Pradesh the important breeds include Ongole, Malvi, Deoni, Hallikar and Krishna Valley.
  • In Telangana and Rayalaseema 95% of the buffaloes are of non-descript type, whereas in coastal Andhra Pradesh the cross breed Murrah buffalo population is high.
  • The production performance of indigenous cattle can be enhanced by 3 different methods.

Improvement of cross breed cattle

  • By cross breeding local animals in telangana and Rayalaseema regions with Jersey and by Holstein Friesian in coastal areas, significant improvement has been done in the performance of these animals

Improvement of indigenous cattle

  • By using good quality Ongole semen, the ongole breed is being improved in its breeding tract.

Grading system

  • The bulls of Murrah breed are being used for grading up of non-descript animals to enhance their milk production ability.
  • An artificial insemination centre is located for every 4-5 villages. Pedigreed bull semen is being used to produce calves in these centers

High yielding dairy breeds

Holstein Friesian

  • This is by far the best diary breed among exotic cattle regarding milk yield. On an average it gives 25 litres of milk per day, whereas a cross breed H.F. cow gives 10 - 15 lts per day.
  • It can perform well in coastal and delta areas


  • Dairy milk yield is found to be 20 lts whereas cross bred jersey, cow gives 8-10 lts per day.
  • In India this breed has acclimatized well especially in the hot and humid areas


  • On an average the daily milk yield is found to be 8-10 lts, whereas a cross breed murrah buffalo gives 6-8 lts per day.
  • It performs well in coastal and slightly cold climatic areas.


Selection of dairy cows

  • Selecting a calf in calf show, a cow in cattle show by judging is an art. A dairy farmer should build up his own herd by breeding his own herd. Following guidelines will be useful for selection of a diary cow.
  • Selection should be done based upon breed characteristics, fertility and milk producing ability.
  • History sheet or pedigree sheet which are generally maintained in organized forms reveals the complete history of animal
  • So, whenever an animal is purchased from a cattle fair, it should be selected based upon its breed characters and milk producing ability
  • The maximum yield by dairy cows are noticed during the first five lactations. So generally selection should be carried out during I or II lactation and that too are month after calving.
  • There successive complete milkings has to be done and an average of it will give a fair idea regarding production by a particular animal
  • A cow should allow anybody to milk, and should be doile it is better to purchase the animals during the months of October and November. Maximum yield is noticed till 90 days after calving.

Breed characteristics of high yielding dairy cows

  • Attractive individuality with feminity, vigour, harmonious blending of all parts, impressive style and carriage
  • Animal should have wedge shaped appearance of the body
  • It should have bright eyes with lean neck
  • The udder should be well attached to the abdomen
  • The skin of the udder should have a good network of blood vessels
  • All four quarters of the udder should be well demarcated with well placed teats.


Selection of she boffaloes

When you purchase buffaloes for milk production we have to select healthy animal known for economic milk production. We have to take following steps in selecting a dairy animal

Breed characters

  • Body confirmation
  • Body weight
  • Ancestors performance
  • Reproduction capacity
  • Health condition
  • Age
  • No. of lactations
  • Past performance of the animal
  • Free of chronic disease
  • Cleanliness of teeth Legs and toes free of injuries
  • Good eye site
  • Whether animal is dry or lactating
  • Date of delivery
  • Month of pregnancy
  • If non-pregnant, how many times it came in to heat
  • Animal should follow owners instructions
  • The udder should be in good shape and easy to milk

The animal should not have the following

  • Poor growth
  • Late maturity
  • Not coming into heat
  • Repeat breeder
  • Long gap between two lactations
  • Uncurable chronic diseases
  • Retained placenta
  • Low milk production
  • Unable to give milk without calf