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General
Soils
Seed Material
Cultivation Practices
Nutrients
Irrigation
Pests
Post Harvest
Growth Regulators
Crop Specific
  Pesticide Conversions


Untitled Document

The dosage recommendations are generally indicated for one acre or hectare as given in tabular form

Active ingredient

% Concentration

PPM

Kg a.i. / ha

0.01 % / 0.05% / 0.07%

100 ppm or 200 ppm

Mostly granular and dust formulations

Mostly E.C. , S.P., W.P., S.C.L., etc

Mostly harmones 10000 PPM = 1% solution

Liquids

  • Preparation of spray mix ( Dilution rate ) : How much quantity of formulation should be mixed with water.
  • Calculation of Volume of Pesticides to be mixed for spray - HV sprayer

DC/AC * 1000

  • DC = Desired concentration of pesticides recommended by experts

    eg: 0.05% ai

  • AC = Available concentration mentioned in container.

    eg: 50% EC

  • Multiplication by 1000 will give the pesticide required per litre of spray solution

    For eg: Chlorpyriphos 20% EC ; recommendation is 0.05%

    0.05/20*1000 = 2.5 ml / litre

  • Calculation of Volume of Pesticides to be mixed for spray - LV sprayer
  • Reduce the water by 1/3rd of the volume approximately. As a result there will be increase in the ratio of pesticide formulation to spray fluid by three times of the High volume sprayer.
  • Eg: HVS = 200 ml pesticide formulation in 200 lts of water - 1ml : 1lt
  • LVS = 200 ml pesticide formulation in 200/3 (66 lts ) of water - 3ml : 1lt

Granules

Eg : Carbofuran 3% G

  • Recommendation for Carbofuran is 1 kg ai / ha
  • 3 kg ai present in 100 kg of Carbofuran
  • 1 kg ai present in ? = 100/3 = 33 kg
  • So Carbofuran dosage is 33 Kg / ha or 13 kg / acre

Dusts

Eg : Methyl Parathion 2% Dust

  • Recommendation 0.5 kg ai / ha
  • 2kg ai present in 100 kg dust formulation
  • 0.5 kg present in ? = 100*0.5/2 = 25 kg
  • So Methyl Parathion dosage is 25kg / ha or 10kg / acre
  • For preparing spray mix with wettable powder, first prepare a paste of required quantity of WP with small quantity of water, subsequently add this paste to the desired quantity of water and stir well.
  • To help uninterrupted spraying always use clean water and use filter while filling solution into spray tank.
  • The spray solution should not be prepared more than what can be sprayed during the day. The pesticide effect of diluted solution becomes less if solution is left over night.

Field Scouting

  • Sampling procedure: Recommendations same for Indica and Japonica
    • Sample size: 10-20 hills
    • Hill selection : randomly on diagonal, zigzag or straight sampling pattern across field.
    • Hill monitoring:
  • Hoppers-each hill is tapped with a hand/stick- the insects that fall into the water are identified and counted.

  • Thrips per hill are counted
  • Leaf folder, Hispa total leaves and damaged leaves are counted

  • Stem borer (dead hearts, white heads) Number of total tillers and damaged tillers are counted, adults are counted per sq m.
  • Eggs: Egg masses of stem borers are counted per sq m.
  • Crop Stage: The growth stage of the plant is noted.

IPM critical levels, management options and period when potentially problematic.

Pest

Critical level

Management option

Critical Period

Rice whorl maggot

No levels

Drain field

Seedling only

Thrips

> 25 % leaves damaged

Flood field

Emergence to tiller only

Stem borers

5% hills affected (1 panicle / hill) (4 egg masses/hill)

 

Panicle initiation to booting

Brown Plant hoppers

5-10 nymphs/hill

 

Seedling to milky grain

Green leaf hopper

2 nymphs / hill if tungro present

20 nymphs/hill if no tungro

 

Seedling to panicle initiation

Rice leaf folder/roller

10% freshly damaged leaves per hill

 

Late stage of the crop (generally throughout the crop period)

Rice Hispa

Tillering 2 adults/Hill or 2 damaged leaves per hill

 

Tillering

Types of problem

Damage Cause

Leaf damage: Burning and twisting of young leaves

Rice whorl maggot; Thrips

Leaf damage : Leaves drying and dying

Plant hoppers

Leaf damage :Leaf cutting

Grasshoppers

Deadhearts

Stemborers

Dry dead circles of crop (Hopper burn)

Plant hopper

Whiteheads/white ears

Stem borers

Area Specific Recommendations:
List Of Insecticides and the Insects Reportedly Controlled

Product

SB

LF

WBPH

HISPA

RECC

RW

GH

Monocrotophos

*

*

*

 

*

   

Endosulfan

   

*

       

Quinalphos

   

*

 

*

   

Chlorpyriphos

*

*

*

       

Acephate

             

Dicofol

             

DDVP

             

Phosphomidon

*

           

Dimethoate

             

Gama BHC

     

*

 

*

 

Triazophos

             

MethylParathion

     

*

   

*

Carbofuran

             

Fipronil

             

Phorate

         

*

 

Cartap Hydrocloride

*

*

         

Ethofenprox

             

Imidacloprid

             

Chlorpyriphos G

             

Fenthion

 

*

*

       

Diazinone

         

*

 

Carbaryl gama BHC

*

           

Fenitrothion

 

*

 

*

     

SB : Stem borer

GH : Grasshopper

LF : Leaf folder

WBPH : White backed plant hopper

RECC : Rice ear-cutting caterpillarClimbing cut worm

RW : Root weevil

Status of Rice pests:

  • Rice crop is regarded as the most vulnerable crop to insects and pest in tropical areas where 2-3 crops are grown in a year.
  • Punjab was not primarily a rice cultivating area about three decades back and whatever little area was under rice cultivation was relatively free from ravages of insects and pests.
  • With the introduction of HYV dwarf varieties and the associated technology during the last 2-3 decades, there has been considerable increase in the acreage under paddy cultivation.
  • Transplanting is staggerred for more than two months. Consequently, there has been a major change in the insect complex of this crop.
  • Some of the important pests which were hitherto considered minor have since become quite serious.
  • WBPH which was considered sporadic now causes heavy losses almost every year in one place or the other.
  • Leaf folder has now become a regular pest in Punjab.
  • Similarly rice ear-eating caterpillar has also established itself in the changed rice ecosystem.
  • Stem borer which was earlier restricted to parts of Firozepur has now spread itself through the state.
  • Similarly hispa which was earlier considered a pest in the sub-mountaineous region has spread itself to new areas in the entire state.
  • Occassional occurrence of pests like thrips is also causing severe losses. These and many other insects and pests now form a part of changed rice eco system.

Insect Management - Chemical Products

Phorate

  • Chemical Name: O, O diethyl S (ethyl thio methyl) phosphorodithioate.
  • Action: Soil systemic insecticide
  • Toxicity: LD50 oral 2 4mg/kg
  • Dermal 630mg/kg
  • Signal word: Danger
  • Antidote: Atropine
  • Formulation: Granules (10% or 15%)

Endosulfan

  • Chemical Name: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 10 Hexachloro 1, 5, 5a, 6, 9, 9a hexahydro 6, 9 Methano 2, 4, 3 benzo (e) dixathiepin 3 - oxide
  • Action: Insecticide, Acaricide
  • Properties: M.P 1080C & 2060C insoluble in water
  • Toxicity: LD50 oral 30mg/kg alcohol, 70mg/kg aqueous and 110mg/kg oil . Dermal 359mg/kg
  • Antidote: There is no specific antidote Barbitaric acid derivatives used
  • Formulation: Wettable Powder 35%, 50%
  • E.C 17.5%, 35%, 50%
  • Granules 2, 3, 4, 5%
  • Dusts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6%

Cartap Hydrochloride

  • Chemical name: S, S {2 (dimethyl amino) trimethyl bis (thiocarbamate) Hydrochloride}
  • Action: Insecticide (stomach poison)
  • Toxicity: LD50 345mg/kg
  • Application: rice stem borer
  • Formulation: 50% C.H. 2% dust, 4% granules

Chlorpyriphos

  • Chemical name: O, O diethyl O (3, 5, 6 trichloro 2 pyridil) phosphorothioate
  • Action: Insecticide
  • Properties: M.P 41.5 43.50C
  • Toxicity: LD50 oral 97 276mg/kg
  • Formulation: 15% granules

Fenucarb (BPMC)

  • Chemical name: 2sec butyl phenyl N methyl carbamate
  • Action: Contact insecticide
  • Toxicity: Choline esterase inhibitor
  • LD50 oral - 410mg/kg
  • Dermal - 4200mg/kg
  • Application: Leaf hopper & plant hoppers
  • Formulation: 50 E.C, 2% dust, 3% granules
  • Combination: Fenitrothion 2%, for rice bugs & stem borer

MONOCROTOPHOS

  • Chemical name: Dimethyl phosphate of 3 hydroxy N methylcis - crotonamide
  • Action: Contract and systematic insecticide and acaricide.
  • Toxicity: LD50 oral 8 23mg/kg
  • Dermal 354mg/kg
  • Antidote: Atropine with oxime preparation Eg. PAM and toxigonin

Methyl Parathion

  • Chemical name: O, O dimethyl O P nitro phenyl phosphorothioate
  • Action: Insecticide
  • Toxicity: LD50 oral 9 25mg/kg
  • Dermal 300 400mg/kg
  • Antidote: Atropine, PAM.

Quinalphos

  • Chemical name: O,O diethyl-O-(2- chinoxalyl)-phosphorothioate
  • Action: insecticide
  • Toxicity : LD50 Oral 66mg/kg
  • Dermal 340mg/kg
  • Antidote: Atropine, PAM
  • Biting in sucking pests of rice

PHOSPHOMIDON

  • Chemical name : 2 chloro-2-diethyl carbamyl-1-methyl vinyl
  • Dimethyl phosphate
  • Action : Systemic and contact insecticide
  • Acaricide
  • Toxicity : LD50 oral 20-22.4mg/kg
  • Dermal 125-530mg/kg
  • Antidote : PAM& Toxogonine

 
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