Since the seeds are very small in size, they are normally sown in
raised nursery beds and the seedlings are planted in the main field
later on. About 300-350 g of seeds will be required to plant one hectare.
Since the seeds of F1 hybrids are costly (Rs.15,000/- to
20,000/- per Kg), seeds have to be sown individually in small plastic
cups or ice cream cups in which 1-2 holes are made at the bottom to
By this method the quantity of seeds required to raise seedlings to
plant one hectare can be reduced to 70-90 g.
During last week of May or first week of December, raised beds of
60-70 cm width and of convenient length are prepared.
Avoid using same place for nursery bed preparation for every year.
The nursery bed has to be properly
leveled and nursery beds of 15 cm height and 0.8 m width and with
convenient length beds are prepared.
For one m2 of nursery area apply 5kg well rotten FYM and 20 g of each
N, P and K fertiliser, and also apply 2.5g carbofuran or 200 g of neem
For management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)
and reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis an integrated
plant protection strategy using botanicals and bio-agents has been developed.
While preparing the nursery beds, neem cake /castor cake/ neam leaf/
castor leaf/ pongamia leaf/ calotropis leaf has to be incorporated @
400 g/m2 followed by application of spore suspension of nematophagus
fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus or Verticillium chlamydosporium
and then inoculation of a vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae Glomus
fasciculatum or G.mossae.
This combined treatment reduced the infestation of root-knot nematode
and reniform nematode simultaneously increased the multiplication of
endomycorrhizae and its colonization of tomato root which inturn could
protect the crop from the nematodes in the main field also. Across the
beds prepared, lines are drawn at a spacing of 2.5 cm.
Seed treatment with biofertilizer
The seeds required for one hectare can be mixed with required quantity
of rice Kanji just to have a thin coating.
Then 100-200 g. of Azospirillum culture can be sprinkled over
this and stirred thoroughly by a stick.
The treated seeds are dried in shade for 30 minutes and then sown
sparsely along the lines in ½ cm depth and then covered by the topsoil.
To protect the seeds from heavy rains, the seedbeds are covered by
a thin layer or straw or dried grass.
The beds are then watered using rose can.
About 4 cents of nursery area will be required to plant one hectare.
Along the edges of the beds, BHC 10% dust is applied to prevent ants
from taking away the seeds.
The seeds germinate in about seven to eight days.
After germination, the straw cover is removed and the beds can be
To avoid damping off disease, the seedbeds have to be drenched with
copper oxychloride solution (2.5 g/lit).
Twenty days after sowing, spary 1.5ml monocrotophos and 2 g zineb/
The seedlings are ready for transplanting in about 25-30 days after
In the northern plains where frost occurs during winter, usually two
successful crops are taken, whereas in frost-free areas where winter
is not severe three crops in a year are possible.
In regions where frost occurs, the first transplanting is done February
after the frost is over and the second crop transplanting is done around
July when the rain has set in.
In the southern plains where there is no danger of frost,The first
transplanting is done in December-January, Second June-July Third in
September-October depending on the irrigation facilities available.