- drained, light - textured, loose, friable sandy - loam or sandy
clay loam soils, well - supplied with calcium and a moderate amount
of organic matter are ideal for groundnut cultivation.
Good soil drainage facilitates adequate exchange of air to meet
nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen requirement of the crop (soil
of proper drainage adversely affects root respiration,resulting
in inhibition of root growth,ultimately
the plant growth and development through retarded metabolic functions.
the absence of adequate oxygen in the root zone, beneficial soil bacteria,
especially the nitrogen - fixers become ineffective and uptake of nitrogen
by roots is hampered.
Since staining of groundnut pods
reduces their marketable quality, light - coloured soils, which do not
normally contain materials that stain pods, are preferred.
Seed germination and seedling
emergence are favoured in loose, friable and sandy - loam soils.
The pegs can penetrate the soil
easily and pods can be harvested from such soils with minimum losses
of comparatively clean produce because the soil does not adhere excessively
to the freshly dug pods.
Adequate supply of calcium mineral
in the soil is very essential for the production of groundnut pods with
sound and mature kernels.
A moderate amount of organic
matter (about 2%) has been reported to increase the water and nutrient
- supplying capacity of the soil, especially the micro - nutrients like
zinc, copper, iron, manganese, boron and molybdenum to meet the plant
needs without staining the pods.
to soil fertility, soil - texture is vitally important aspect of groundnut
and fine - textured soils with stiff clay minerals (montmorillonite)
cause serious difficulties in groundnut harvesting owing to a higher
pod - retention.
soils are therefore avoided for cultivation of rainfed groundnut because
they tend to become hard and stiff during prolonged dry spells between
two rains, thus severely interfering with peg penetration into the soil
and their further development.
as groundnut crop can be grown successfully on heavy - textured soils
with a greater risk of pod loss at harvest.
with shallow top soil, poorly drained areas and those subject to excessive
erosion should be totally avoided.
groundnuts must be grown on heavier - textured soils, runner and pish
varieties of groundnut are more suitable than the Virginia types.
yields are obtained on soils with moderate acidic reaction (soil pH
6.0 to 6.4), alkaline soils being undesirable.
of groundnut leaves and blackening of parts of pods occurred when the
soil pH was 7.5 - 8.5. Soils having pH less than 5.0 are also not suitable
for groundnut cultivation.
- drained acidic, alkaline and saline soils should be essentially avoided
for groundnut production.
will be a reduction in groundnut yield due to soil salinity and to reduction
in pod size and the number of pods per plant.
of gypsum alleviates the detrimental effects of soil salinity by improving
leaching of salts below the root zone.
yield of groundnut can be obtained on fairly heavy soils with good tilth
and favourable moisture regime.
yield of 50.93 q / ha of the irrigated groundnut grown on clayey soil
(more than 50% clay), with favourable pH, exchangeable sodium percentage
(ESP) and calcium carbohydrate equivalent, as against 10.00 q / ha obtained
on the similar soils, with less favourable pH, ESP and calcium carbonate
which are most suitable for growing groundnuts should have good drainage,
electrical conductivity less than 4.0 m.mhos / cm (saturation extract
of soil), high clay content, ESP less than 5, pH lower than 8 and calcium
carbonate equivalent less than 4%.
the electrical conductivity of irrigation water should be less than
4 m.mhos / cm and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) less than 2 m.eq /
in the pod yield when using saline water exceeding 4 m.mhos / cm was
attributed to poor germination, retarded seedling growth, poor nodulation
and reduction in size and number of pods per plant.
and subtropical conditions of India, groundnut is extensively grown
in light - textured red sandy, red loamy, alluvial and coastal - alluvial
soils as well as on mixed black and red and medium black soils.
of both the bunch (more than 50%) and runner (about 80%) groundnuts
in Southern India is grown on sandy, sandy - loam and mixed red and
is also grown on medium black soils, deep alluvial loams and on sandy
and gravelly soils of poor fertility with low organic matter content.
Ikisan - Climate suitable for groundnut cultivation
As climate is the single major limiting factor in the
crop production in the mater of the time of sowing, scheduling of irrigation,
timing of fertilizer application, using of pesticides, etc.
Groundnut is grown throughout the tropics and its cultivation
is extended to the subtropical countries lying between 45o north and
35o south and up to an altitude of 1000 meters.
The crop can be grown successfully in places receiving
a minimum rainfall of 1250 mm.
The rainfall should be distributed well during the flowering
and pegging of the crop.
The total amount of rainfall required for pre-sowing
operations (preparatory cultivation) is 100 mm; for sowing it is 150mm;
and for flowering and pod development an evenly distributed rainfall
of 400-500 mm is required.
The groundnut crop however, can not stand frost for long
and severe drought or water stagnation.
Climatic conditions such as temperature and rainfall
significantly influence the groundnut production.
Potential, warm and moist conditions are very favourable
than cool and wet climate, which results in slow germination and seedling
emergence, increasing the risk of seed rot and seedling diseases.
Adequate rainfall well distributed during the growing
season, especially during fruiting, is essential for maximum yield and
quality of groundnut.
Also a minimum 100 - day optimum temperature growing
season is necessary for successful groundnut crop production.