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Introduction > Origin And Spread > Area And Production > Composition Of Groundnut Seed >


Ikisan - History of groundnut

Introduction

Scientific Name : Arachis hypogaea Linn
Family : Leguminoseae
Sub- family: Papilionaceae

Groundnut in Indian Languages

  • Groundnut is one of the most important oil seed crop of India. Groundnut in Indian local name is as follows .

Local names

  • Bengali:Cheenabadam
  • Oriya:Chinabadam
  • Hindi:Mungfall
  • Assamese:Chinabadam
  • Punjabi:Mungfali
  • Gujarati:Bhoising
  • Marathi:Phuimug
  • Tamil:Nilakadalia
  • Telugu: Nelashanaga / Verushanaga

  • Among oil seed crops groundnut has first place in India due to various reasons as follows:
    1. It can withstand drought and is suitable for dryland farming.
    2. It is a soil erosion resistant crop and being a legume crop, it can fix the atmospheric Nitrogen with the help of nodule bacteria and thereby improves the soil fertility.
    3. It provides a good green manure for the succeeding crop.
    4. Its shell, skin, hulm and hay are all good as fooder.
    5. Groundnut cake is chief oil cake feed to animals and it is also used as manures.
    6. The plant stalks are fed to cattle in the form of green , dried and silage.
    7. It is an important cash crop and is useful as a rotational crop.
    8. Moreover, groundnut is an excellent money corner and a chief source of protein.

 
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Ikisan - Origin and Spread of groundnut

Origin And Spread

  • The genus Arachis L. Comprises a large and diverse group of diploid and tetraloid taxa native only to south America.
  • There Arachis ranges geographically from the equator near the mouth of the amazon to 34oS latitude on the northern bank of the Rio de la plata in Uruguay, and extends westward from the Atlantic to the parana and the eastern foot hills of the andes (35-66o W longitude).
  • The northern boundary is usually marked by the southern extent of the amazonian rainforest, except where Arachis spp, may occur where the forest is penetrated by the more open vegetation of the cerrado breaks.
  • Biological dispersal mechanisms are very poor, with the annual dispersion rate limited to a radius varying from several centimetres to a few metres.
  • Although 50-70 species may exist in the genus, only 23 species are cultivated.
  • All are indigenous to the area east of the Andes and south of the amazon rainforest.

Origin Of Arachis hypogea

  • Linnaeus (1753) described the first Arachis in his species plantarium.
  • Five species, each from different sections, are now cultivated.
  • A.Hypogaea L; the principal cultigen, are grown for their edible seeds and were improved by the indigenous peoples of south america. Recently, forms of A.glabrata Benth., A.repens.
  • The low genetic affinity of these five species shows their independent domestication.
  • This is especially interesting for A.hypogaea and A.villosulicarpa, both cultivated for their qualities for human nutrition: A.hypogaea is widely spread throughout the world but A.villosulicarpa has limited use only by the Indians.
  • A.hypogaea is the only domesticant, whereas the others are cultivated, i.e., they can survive in the wild.) Arachis hypogaea (2n=4x=40) is a member of section Arachis .

Spread

  • A small-podded genotype with a spreading habit of growth was the earliest form successfully introduced into commerce in the south-eastern United States.
  • It is a long-season groundnut, possibly from Africa.The Guarani region of north-eastern Argentina, Paraguay and southe western Brazil is the centre of variation for the pish type (subsp. Fastigiata var. vulgaris) and it was distributed from this region.
  • The pish who cultivated the crop both for cooking oil and for use in preparing a chocolate covered confection, extracted the first oil in Europe .
  • The pish type is a small two-seeded form adapted to adverse environmental conditions;Groundnut is cropped on exposed riverine sandbars during the low-water season.
  • A selected portion of the harvest is replanted in upland gardens as a seed crop.
  • The cropping system exerts strong selection pressure for the subspecific valencia characters of earliness, sequential flowering, loss of seed dormancy, and strong pegs.
  • Bees are frequent visitors to the flowers.
  • Such data, with the archaeological and historical evidence, and the diversity of valencia landraces, further support the notion that ancient people living in this region also developed that valencia botanical type.

 
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Ikisan - Area and production of groundnut

Area and Production

  • India, which adopted groundnut as an agricultural crop by the late 19th century, gradually became the major groundnut producing country in the world within a span of 5-6 decades. India shares 22 per cent of the world production (area 8.0 m.ha, production 7.3 m.tonnes).
  • In Andhra Pradesh, it is an important and major oilseed crop, covering an area of 1.69million ha. with a production of 1.25 million tonnes. Among the various states, it ranks second in area and third in production. Out of which 80% of the area is covered under rainfed crop and the remaining is under irrigated conditions.
  • In Andhra Pradesh, majority of the groundnut area (80%) is covered in Ananthapur, Kurnool, Chittoor, Cuddapah and Mahaboob Nagar Districts with a Production of 6.71lakh tonnes (64%).
  • Hence this agro-climatic zone is considered as a main zone for oilseed production especially groundnut. The crop is also popular in vizianagaram, Warangal, Srikakulam and Nalgonda districts with Considerable area.

Area, production and yield of groundnut crop in different countries (2003-04)

Country

Area in Ha Production (Mt) Yield (Kg/Ha)

Argentina

167,500

418,571

2498

Benin

160,000

130,000

812

Brazil

98,100

221,203

2254

Burkina Faso

345,000

321,000

930

Cameroon

205,000

200,000

975

Central African Republic

120,000

133,600

1113

Chad

480,000

450,000

937

China

4,725,000

14,385,000

3044

Congo, Dem Republic of

458,000

363,850

794

Ghana

431,667

389,649

902

Guinea

210,000

300,000

1428

India

6,720,000

6,500,000

967

Indonesia

702,163

1,450,000

2065

Malawi

210,000

161,162

767

Mali

210,000

156,000

742

Mozambique

293,000

110,000

375

Myanmar

580,000

715,000

1232

Niger

260,000

209,369

805

Nigeria

2,880,000

2,937,000

1019

Sudan

1,900,000

1,200,000

631

Uganda

221,000

155,000

701

USA

564,140

1,933,070

3426

Viet Nam

258,700

451,100

1743

Zimbabwe

260,000

125,000

480

World

24,607,001

35,723,285

1451

Source : FAO CITATION

State-wise Area, Production and Productivity of Groundnut in India (2001-2002)

State

Area (Million ha)

Production (Million t)

Productiity (kg/ha)

Andhra Pradesh

1.69

1.25

739

Karnataka

0.86

0.60

702

Maharashtra

0.43

0.49

1147

Orissa

0.06

0.06

985

Tamil Nadu

0.77

1.33

1724

Madhya Pradesh

0.24

0.26

1099

Rajasthan

0.24

0.30

1226

Uttar Pradesh

0.11

0.10

853

Gujarat

1.92

2.71

1412

Others

0.07

0.11

@

ALL INDIA

6.40

7.21

1125

Source : DACP

Districtwise Area, Production & Productivity of Groundnut in Andhra Pradesh 2003-04

District

Area in Hectares

Production in tonnes

Yield in Kg/ha

1

2 3 4

Srikakulam

33509 33967 1014

Vizianagaram

47064 41940 891

Visakhapatnam

10845 13587 1253

East Godavari

705 1097 1556

West Godavari

3107 5790 1864

Krishna

7593

12071 1590

Guntur

8613 11432 1327

Prakasham

7207 12441 1726

Nellore

14129 27775 1966

Chittoor

159612 143775 901

Cuddapah

129396 55141 426

Ananthapur

685995 207681 303

Kurnool

189459 195810 1034

Mahaboobnagar

75370 68629 911

Rangareddy

5897 7259 1231

Medak

4853 6931 1428

Nizamabad

2565 5903 2301

Adilabad

3251 4648 1430

Karimnagar

16788 31756 1892

Warangal

45055 58273 1293

Khammam

6717 8219 1224

Nalgonda

35529 31688 892

State

1493259 985813 660

Source : Season and Crop report Tamilnadu

Area, Productivity and Production of Groundnut in Andhra Pradesh

Year Area in lakh hectares Productivity in Kgs/hect Production in lakh tonnes
Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1999-2000 15.21 2.74 17.95 448 1488 607 6.81 4.08 10.89
2000-2001 16.01 2.73 18.74 1061 1636 1145 16.97 4.46 21.43
2001-2002 14.39 2.52 16.91 568 1714 739 8.18 4.32 12.50
2002-2003 12.71 1.99 14.70 427 1399 559 5.42 2.78 8.20
2003-2004 12.58 2.35 14.93 482 1614 660 6.07 3.79 9.86
Average of prec eding 5 years (1998-99 to 2002-2003) 14.93 2.71 17.64 693 1575 826 10.62 4.30 14.92

 
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Ikisan - Composition of groundnut seed

Composition of groundnut seed (in percentage)

Constituents

Testa

Embryonal axis

Kernels

Water

9 - 3.9-13.2

Protein

11-13.4

26.5-27.8

21.4-36.4

Fat

0.5-1.9 39.4-43 35.8-54.2

Total Carbohydrate

48.3-52.2 - 6-24.9

Reducing sugar

1-1.2 7.9 0.1-0.4

Sucrose

- 12 1.9-6.4

Starch

- - 0.9-5.3
Crude fibre

21.4-34.9 1.6-1.8 1.6-1.9

Ash

1.9-4.6 1.9-3.2 1.8-3.1

Nutritional values of groundnut seed

Nutrients
Amount in 100gm of Seed Daily Reqt per Adult
Raw Fried

Calories

564

582

2400

Protein(gm)

26

26

55

Fat(gm)

47.5

48.7

51

Calcium(mg)

69

72

400-500

Iron(mg)

2.1

2.2

20

Thiamine(B1)(mg)

1.1

0.3

1.2

Niacin(mg) 17.2 17.2 16

 
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