- Certain crops such as ber, custard apple, amla
and mango require less water and can be grown as rainfed crops.
With supplemental irrigation pomegranate and mango can be used
for alternate land use systems. These orchards can be intercropped
upto 3 years to generate more biomass.
- Can be grown on any type of soil. Proper
manuring and irrigation during fruit development checks the dropping
of berries. Regular pruning is necessary. Spacing may be kept
as 6 to 9m.
- Can be grown in all types of soil where
rainfall is more than 750mm having pH ranging from 4.5 to 8.2.
Regular irrigation throughout the year is necessary. Light pruning
of trees assists in heavy fruiting. The usual spacing is kept
as 5.5 to 6m.
- Can be grown even on slightly alkaline
soils. Plants need light irrigation till they are well established.
Fruting starts at the age of 8 years. The trees should be planted
at a spacing of 7.5 to 9m.
Though it is a dryland crop, it requires irrigations
only in summer season from March to May at an interval of 15
to 20 days for fruit retention and maturity Mango requires slightly
deep soils with good drainage and pH at 6.5 to 7.6. It needs
10m x 10m spacing in well deep soils and 9m x 9m in mediumdeep
Alongwith horticultural crops, plantations for
timber and fibre can be developed on soils, which are not suitable
for grain crops. The trees include neem / Leucaena and agave
in paired rows. Stylosanthes hamata can be grown in the interspace.
Silvi pastural systems: Involve lopping trees
and grazing under storey grasses and bushes in forests and plantations.
This system is applicable to vast areas of cultivable wateland.
- Farm forestry systems: This system is
an integration of field, forage crops and trees within a broader
framework of proper resource management. Fuel and fodder forage
yielding trees and planted on fences, field boundaries, bunds
and near the farm ponds as shelterbelts, windbreaks and tree belts.
These modify the environmental factors and increase the yield
of crops besides yielding fuel, fodder and fruits. Eucalyptus,
tamarind, acacia, mango, neem, casuarinas and ber are useful for
Farming Systems Research
Under farming system where groundnut is
a prevalent cropping system, rearing of sheep (ram lambs) for
about three months @10 sheep /ha, with groundnut haulms or stall
feeding of haulms + grazing has been found highly profitable
than crop system alone.